Laboratory water purification systems including carbon adsorption, distillation, reverse osmosis, deionization, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation and the combination of ultrafiltration/ultraviolet oxidation.
In addition to general preparation of reagents and washing of plastic and glassware, ultrapure water is essential in specific biotechnology applications for the preparation of media and electrophoresis gels.
In vitro fertilization, tissue and cell culture, and DNA research also require ultrapure water that is both biologically pure and free of trace metals and dissolved organics.
Ultra-sensitive analytical instruments including HPLC, GFAA, ICP/MS, IC, AAS and GC/MS are capable of detecting elements and compounds in nanograms per liter (ng/L) or parts per trillion (ppt). These instruments require water that is absolutely pure.